Morphological and phylogenetic aspects of the dentition of Megacephalosaurus eulerti, a pliosaurid from the Turonian of Kansas, USA, with remarks on the cranial anatomy of the taxon
Madzia, D., Sachs, S. & Lindgren, J. (2019) Morphological and phylogenetic aspects of the dentition of Megacephalosaurus eulerti, a pliosaurid from the Turonian of Kansas, USA, with remarks on the cranial anatomy of the taxon. Geological Magazine 156(7): 1201-1216. [Request a pdf]
Megacephalosaurus eulerti is a large macropredatory plesiosaur representing one of the last members of the diverse pliosaurid clade Brachaucheninae. The taxon was established upon a nearly complete skull including the mandible and fragments of the postcranial skeleton originating from the lower middle Turonian (Upper Cretaceous) of Kansas, USA. Owing to its age, reasonable completeness and its state of preservation, M. eulerti bears important anatomical details regarding the last brachauchenines. Here we assess the dentition of the taxon, compare the teeth to those of other thalassophonean pliosaurids and comment on the utility of these results for inferences of the phylogenetic relationships of the last brachauchenines. Additionally, we provide remarks on the cranial anatomy of M. eulerti, revise character scores of this taxon used in current phylogenetic studies and address the phylogenetic relationships within Brachaucheninae. Parsimony analyses, aimed to test different character sampling and tree-search strategy, inferred only a single unambiguous synapomorphy uniting a clade formed by mid- to Late Cretaceous brachauchenines: presence of subcircular rather than subtrihedral/trihedral cross-sectional shape of the teeth. Still, the last brachauchenines (Brachauchenius and Megacephalosaurus) can be roughly characterized by a switch from anisodont to subisodont dentition and reduction of their tooth count. Nevertheless, the overall knowledge of the origin, phylogenetic relationships and distinguishability of brachauchenine pliosaurids remains poor and represents a subject for further extensive studies and modifications in taxon and character sampling.
Filling the biostratigraphical gap: first choristoderan from the Lower–mid-Cretaceous interval of Europe
Reiss, S., Scheer, U., Sachs, S. & Kear, B.P. (2019) Filling the biostratigraphical gap: first choristoderan from the Lower–mid-Cretaceous interval of Europe. Cretaceous Research 96: 135-141. [Request a pdf]
Choristodera is a clade of extinct aquatic reptiles whose fossils have been found in freshwater and marginal marine deposits from Europe, Asia and North America. The European record is the most extensive, spanning at least the Middle Jurassic to early Miocene, and incorporates the stratigraphically oldest and youngest members of the group. Despite this, there is an unexplained ∼70 myr gap in European choristoderan fossil occurrences. Here we fill this hiatus with the discovery of an isolated choristoderan dorsal vertebra from the lower Cenomanian ‘Rotkalk’ red limestone facies of the Essen Greensand Formation in Mülheim/Ruhr, North Rhine-Westphalia, western Germany. This specimen represents the first identifiable European choristoderan from the Kimmeridgian–Campanian interval, and displays a diagnostic state combination including an amphiplatyan centrum with synapophyses on the transverse processes that are level with the neurocentral suture. The palaeobiogeographical distribution of choristoderans thus likely transected the entire Laurasian landmass throughout the Cretaceous, with perceived stratigraphical interstices being a result of incomplete sampling.
Reassessment of the Styxosaurus snowii (Williston, 1890) holotype specimen and its implications for elasmosaurid plesiosaurian interrelationships
Sachs, S., Lindgren J. & Kear, B.P. (2018) Reassessment of the Styxosaurus snowii (Williston, 1890) holotype specimen and its implications for elasmosaurid plesiosaurian interrelationships. Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology 42(4): 560-574. [Request a pdf]
The holotype (KUVP 1301) of Styxosaurus snowii—one of the earliest described elasmosaurid plesiosaurians—consists of a well-preserved cranium, mandible and articulated sequence of anterior–mid-series cervical vertebrae found in the lowermost Campanian strata of the Smoky Hill Chalk Member in the Niobrara Formation of Kansas, USA. This particular specimen has proven important for recent phylogenies of Elasmosauridae, and is integral to resulting definitions of the subfamily-level clade, Styxosaurinae. Despite this, KUVP 1301 has not been redescribed or figured in detail since its original taxonomic establishment. We, therefore, re-evaluated KUVP 1301 and assessed its phylogenetic implications. Several notable character states are pertinent for diagnosing S. snowii at genus and species level: (1) an anisodont functional dentition comprising enlarged premaxillary and dentary teeth with a pair of maxillary ‘fangs’, and elongate posterior-most dentary teeth that overlap the upper tooth row; (2) a prominent dorsomedian crest extending from the tip of the premaxillary rostrum, and expanding into a low ‘mound-like’ boss between the external bony nasal openings and orbits; (3) a pronounced convex projection on the posterolateral edge of the squamosals; and (4) platycoelous post-axial cervical vertebral centra that are substantially longer than high, and bear both lateral longitudinal ridges and ventral notches. Character state comparisons with the congeneric subfamily specifier Styxosaurus browni suggest that taxonomic distinction is possible, but equivocal. We, therefore, restrict our definition of Styxosaurus to morphologies observable in KUVP 1301. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of our first-hand data returns inconsistent elasmosaurid intra-clade relationships, especially with regard to Styxosaurinae. Consequently, we posit that a more targeted reassessment of Elasmosauridae is necessary to resolve both species-level topologies and higher taxonomy within the group.
First evidence of a large predatory plesiosaurian from the Lower Cretaceous non-marine ‘Wealden facies’ deposits of northwestern Germany
Sachs, S., Hornung, J.J., Lallensack, J. & Kear, B.P. (2018) First evidence of a large predatory plesiosaurian from the Lower Cretaceous non-marine ‘Wealden facies’ deposits of northwestern Germany. Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology 42(4): 501-508. [Request a pdf]
Here, we describe the incomplete mandible of a large-skulled ‘pliosauromorph’ plesiosaurian from the Lower Cretaceous (Berriasian) of northwestern Germany. The fossil derives from limnic–brackish ‘Wealden facies’ deposits of the Deister Formation (Bückeberg Group), and is preserved as a natural mould in fine-grained sandstone. Examination of the original remains, in conjunction with a three-dimensional photogrammetrically digitized ‘cast’, revealed a conspicuous rosette of symphyseal alveoli, which would otherwise typically characterize Early–Middle Jurassic macrophagous plesiosaurians including rhomaleosaurids and the pliosaurid Simolestes. The Deister Formation ‘pliosauromorph’ represents the first record of a large-bodied plesiosaurian macrocarnivore from the ‘Wealden-facies’ strata of Europe, and thus adds a previously unrecognized trophic level of aquatic apex predators to the Early Cretaceous non-marine ecosystems of Europe.
A rare new Pliensbachian plesiosaurian from the Amaltheenton Formation of Bielefeld in northwestern Germany
Sachs, S. & Kear, B.P. (2018) A rare new Pliensbachian plesiosaurian from the Amaltheenton Formation of Bielefeld in northwestern Germany. Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology 42(4): 487-500. [Request a pdf]
We describe a new plesiosaurian from the upper Pliensbachian Amaltheenton Formation of Bielefeld in northwestern Germany. The taxon is based upon an incomplete associated skeleton comprising part of the right mandibular ramus, several teeth, a series of cervical, pectoral, dorsal and caudal vertebrae, as well as ribs, limb girdle elements including a nearly complete right scapula, and various distal limb bones. A unique character state combination serves to distinguish the Amaltheenton Formation remains from other previously documented Early Jurassic plesiosaurians. The most important features are the presence of a longitudinal notch incising the posterior rim of the glenoid fossa and retroarticular process, and a pronounced ventrolateral shelf on the scapula, both of which constitute derived states otherwise shared with Early Cretaceous leptocleidians. However, phylogenetic analysis using a ‘total group’ Plesiosauria data-set that specifically accommodates for Pliensbachian taxa unanimously placed the Amaltheenton Formation plesiosaurian among Early–Middle Jurassic pliosaurids. This discovery is significant because it reveals unexpected homoplasy, but also because it establishes what is only the third formally named plesiosaurian taxon thus far documented from Pliensbachian strata worldwide.
Soft-tissue evidence for homeothermy and crypsis in a Jurassic ichthyosaur
Lindgren, J., Sjövall, P., Thiel, V., Zheng, W., Ito, S., Wakamatsu, K., Hauff, R., Kear, B.P., Engdahl, A., Alwmark, C., Eriksson, M.E., Jarenmark, M., Sachs, S., Ahlberg, P.E., Marone, F., Kuriyama, T., Gustafsson, O., Malmberg, P., Thomen, A., Rodríguez-Meizoso, I., Uvdal, P., Ojika, M. & Schweitzer, M.H. (2018) Soft-tissue evidence for homeothermy and crypsis in a Jurassic ichthyosaur. Nature 564: 359–365. [Request a pdf]
Ichthyosaurs are extinct marine reptiles that display a notable external similarity to modern toothed whales. Here we show that this resemblance is more than skin deep. We apply a multidisciplinary experimental approach to characterize the cellular and molecular composition of integumental tissues in an exceptionally preserved specimen of the Early Jurassic ichthyosaur Stenopterygius. Our analyses recovered still-flexible remnants of the original scaleless skin, which comprises morphologically distinct epidermal and dermal layers. These are underlain by insulating blubber that would have augmented streamlining, buoyancy and homeothermy. Additionally, we identify endogenous proteinaceous and lipid constituents, together with keratinocytes and branched melanophores that contain eumelanin pigment. Distributional variation of melanophores across the body suggests countershading, possibly enhanced by physiological adjustments of colour to enable photoprotection, concealment and/or thermoregulation. Convergence of ichthyosaurs with extant marine amniotes thus extends to the ultrastructural and molecular levels, reflecting the omnipresent constraints of their shared adaptation to pelagic life.
Not worth mentioning? Paleontological collections of small museums: the example of Bielefeld (North Rhine Westphalia, Germany).
Keiter, M. & Sachs, S. (2018) Not worth mentioning? Paleontological collections of small museums: the example of Bielefeld (North Rhine Westphalia, Germany). In: Beck, L.A., & Joger, U (eds.) Palaeontological collections of Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Springer, Berlin: 69-76. [Request a pdf]
The Naturkunde-Museum in Bielefeld (Germany) is one of the smaller Museums of Nature in Germany, but it harbors a large collection of paleontological specimens. This collection mainly comprises material from the region, and as such is a valuable local archive for the history of life and environment. Among the highlights are several holotypes of Mesozoic vertebrates and invertebrates, a valuable assemblage of fossils from the Oligocene Doberg locality, as well as Pleistocene vertebrate material. It is any museum’s responsibility to take care of and develop such a historical heritage and convey its worth to the public.
Mosasaurid and plesiosaurian remains from marginal facies of the lower Campanian (Upper Cretaceous) Bottrop and Vaals formations of western Germany
Sachs, S., Hornung, J. & Scheer, U. (2018) Mosasaurid and plesiosaurian remains from marginal facies of the lower Campanian (Upper Cretaceous) Bottrop and Vaals formations of western Germany. Cretaceous Research 87: 358-367. [Request a pdf]
Isolated remains of mosasaurids and plesiosaurians are recorded from the lower Campanian Bottrop and Vaals formations of North Rhine-Westphalia, western Germany. A tooth crown from Bottrop- Fuhlenbrock, referred to an elasmosaurid plesiosaurian, represents the first record of this group from late-Upper Cretaceous strata of the area. Another presumed plesiosaurian remain is a fragmentary gastralium from Duisburg-Walsum. Some of the mosasaurid material from the Bottrop Formation (a tooth crown and vertebrae from Bottrop-Fuhlenbrock and Duisburg-Walsum) is assigned to the subfamily Plioplatecarpinae. The Vaals Formation, which is a lateral equivalent of the Bottrop Formation, yielded a single tooth crown, found at Aachen-Bildchen, that is here referred to the genus Hainosaurus. These finds from the Bottrop and Vaals formations constitute evidence of the presence of these taxa in proximal shelf to nearshore settings during the Campanian. The mosasaurid occurrences in particular may be an indicator that diversity and abundance increased in more basinward facies and greater palaeowaterdepth.
Turonian marine amniotes from the Opole area in southwest Poland
Sachs, S., Jagt, J.W.M., Niedźwiedzki, R., Kędzierski, M., Jagt-Yazykova, E. & Kear, B.P. (2018) Turonian marine amniotes from the Opole area in southwest Poland. Cretaceous Research 84: 578-587. [Request a pdf]
A few isolated plesiosaurian and mosasauroid squamate teeth were collected from the Opole area in southwest Poland during the late nineteenth century. Calcareous nannofossil analysis of
their associated rock matrix indicates an early Turonian age (nannofossil zone UC7; Mytiloides ex gr. labiatus and Inoceramus apicalis inoceramid zones), which is significant because this
constitutes a globally enigmatic interval of marine amniote evolution. The Opole plesiosaurian teeth are attributable to polycotylids, but an indeterminate mesopodial was also recovered. They are
similar to specimens from the Cenomanian–Turonian in the Saxonian Cretaceous Basin of Germany and the Chalk succession of England, but differ from polycotylid remains found in the coeval Bohemian
Cretaceous Basin of the Czech Republic, which are far more robust. The mosasaurid tooth crown from Opole compares favourably with dentary and maxillary teeth of a number of Turonian
yaguarasaurines and basal russellosaurines, but in having well-developed carinae and a smooth labial and strongly folded/markedly striated lingual tooth surfaces it can be differentiated from
taxa such as Yaguarasaurus columbianus (Colombia), Romeosaurus fumanensis and R. sorbinii (both Italy) and ‘Mosasaurus’ gracilis (England). However, a single record from the Bohemian Cretaceous
Basin may refer to a conspecific form. All this suggests a potential for slight compositional differences between Cenomanian–Turonian marine amniote assemblages across central and northern
Europe, although otherwise these regions probably constituted a common faunal belt bordering the Tethys Ocean.
Reptilienfunde aus dem Muschelkalk von Gogolin
Sachs, S. & Hornung, J.J. (2017) Reptilienfunde aus dem Muschelkalk von Gogolin. In: Scheer, U. & Stottrop, U. (eds) Erdgeschichten Geologie im Ruhr Museum. Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther König, Essen: 140-141.
Das Ruhr Museum besitzt in seinen Sammlungsbeständen einige Reptilienfunde aus dem Muschelkalk von Gogolin in Oberschlesien (heute Gmina Gogolin, Polen). Zu diesen gehört das hier gezeigte
Kieferfragment, das die charakteristische abgeflachte und robuste Bezahnung der Placodontier aufweist, welche der Gruppe ihren deutschen Namen Pflasterzahnsaurier einbrachte. Placodontier waren
im Wasser lebende Reptilien, deren kräftige Zähne dazu dienten die Schalen ihrer Nahrung zu knacken, die wahrscheinlich aus Muscheln und Armfüßern bestand (Neenan, 2014). Die flachen
„Pflasterzähne“ saßen sowohl im seitlichen Bereich der Kiefer, als auch auf dem Gaumen. Placodontier sind bisher nur aus der Triaszeit bekannt und brachten eine Reihe von verschiedenen
Körperformen hervor. Einige Arten erinnern an die heutigen Galapagos-Meerechsen, andere mit ihrer Gestalt und dem Panzer aus Knochenplatten eher an Meeresschildkröten. Die meisten Placodontier
wurden etwa 1 oder 2 m lang. Sie gehören in die weitere Verwandtschaft der Schuppenkriechtiere (Echsen und Schlangen), haben aber keine lebenden Verwandten mehr.
Gogolin gehört zu den klassischen Fundstellen für Muschelkalkfossilien und lieferte auch schon früh Wirbeltierfossilien. So berichtete bereits Hermann von Meyer, der Vater der Wirbelpaläontologie in Deutschland, in seiner Monographie „Die Saurier des Muschelkalkes mit Rücksicht auf die Saurier aus dem bunten Sandstein und Keuper“ (Meyer, 1847-1855) von Reptilienfunden aus dem Gogoliner Raum. Später erforschten zum Beispiel Georg Gürich aus Breslau und Anton Schrammen aus Hildesheim weiteres Material (Gürich, 1884; Schrammen, 1899). Nebst Gogolin selbst sind auch andere Fundorten in Oberschlesien für Muschelkalkfossilien bekannt, so zum Beispiel Chorzów (Königshütte), Krapkowice (Krappitz), Zakrzów (Sakrau/Sacrau) oder Tarnowskie Góry (Tarnowitz)...
A new basal elasmosaurid (Sauropterygia: Plesiosauria) from the Lower Cretaceous of Germany
Sachs, S., Hornung, J. J. & Kear, B. P. (2017) A new basal elasmosaurid (Sauropterygia: Plesiosauria) from the Lower Cretaceous of Germany. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 37(4): e1301945. [Request a pdf]
Here we report on a new basal elasmosaurid plesiosaurian, Lagenanectes richterae, gen. et sp. nov., from the Lower Cretaceous (probably Upper Hauterivian) of Germany. The material includes a partial skull (cranium and mandible), the atlas-axis complex, additional cervical vertebrae, caudal vertebrae, an ilium, and limb elements. The basioccipital and atlas intercentrum are pathologically deformed, probably due to an osteomyelitic infection. Two potential autapomorphies were found in the mandible: (1) the alveolar margin at the symphysis is laterally expanded with the rostral-most alveoli being markedly procumbent and situated along the lateral margins of the dentaries; and (2) the ventral midline at the symphysis is produced into a prominent wedge-shaped platform indented by numerous irregular pits. Lagenanectes richterae, gen. et sp. nov., also shows a number of typical elasmosaurid traits, including a longitudinal lateral ridge on the cervical vertebral centra (although a ventral notch is absent) and teeth with oval cross-sections. Lagenanectes richterae, gen. et sp. nov., is one of the best-preserved plesiosaurians from the Lower Cretaceous of Europe.
Redescription of the elasmosaurid plesiosaurian Libonectes atlasense from the Upper Cretaceous of Morocco
Sachs, S. & Kear, B.P. (2017) Redescription of the elasmosaurid plesiosaurian Libonectes atlasense from the Upper Cretaceous of Morocco. Cretaceous Research 74: 205-222. [Request a pdf]
The holotype of Libonectes atlasense is an almost complete skeleton from Upper Cretaceous (mid-Turonian) rocks of the Goulmima area in eastern Morocco. Initial assessment of this specimen in 2005 proposed generic referral based on stratigraphical contemporaneity with Libonectes morgani from the Cenomanian–Turonian of Texas, U.S.A. Nevertheless, relative differences in the profile of the premaxillary-maxillary tooth row, position of the external bony nasal opening, number of teeth and rostral inclination of the mandibular symphysis, proportions of the axial neural arch, and number of cervical and pectoral vertebrae were used to distinguish between these species. As part of an on-going comparative appraisal of elasmosaurid plesiosaurian osteo-anatomy, we re-examined the type and formally referred material of both L. atlasense and L. morgani in order to establish species validity, as well as compile a comparative atlas for use in future works. Our inspections revealed that these reportedly distinct species-level fossils are in fact virtually indistinguishable in gross morphology. Indeed, the only substantial difference occurs in relative prominence of the midline keel along the mandibular symphysis, which might be explained by intraspecific variation. Furthermore, our observations permit an amendment to the published generic diagnosis of Libonectes with the confirmation of important states such as the likely presence of a pectoral bar, distocaudal expansion of the humerus, and an epipodial foramen. In addition, novel features include a prominent ‘prong-like’ ventral midline process on the coracoids, and the development of a median pelvic bar that encloses a central fenestration. The composite remains of L. morgani thus constitute one of the most complete elasmosaurid skeletal hypodigms documented worldwide, and evidence a trans-Atlantic distribution for this apparently dispersive species during the early–Late Cretaceous.
Cenomanian–Turonian marine amniote remains from the Saxonian Cretaceous Basin of Germany
Sachs, S., Wilmsen, M., Knüppe, J., Hornung, J. & Kear, B.P. (2017) Cenomanian–Turonian marine amniote remains from the Saxonian Cretaceous Basin of Germany. Geological Magazine 154(2): 237-246. [Request a pdf]
The Saxonian Cretaceous Basin constitutes an important source of rare Late Cretaceous marine amniote fossils from Germany. It is also historically famous, having been documented in a series of monographic works published by the distinguished German palaeontologist Hanns Bruno Geinitz in the nineteenth century. The most productive rock units include the upper Cenomanian Dölzschen Formation and upper Turonian Strehlen and Weinböhla limestones (lower Strehlen Formation). A survey of curated specimens recovered from these deposits has now identified isolated teeth of probable polycotylid and elasmosaurid plesiosaurians, as well as several humeri that are referred to protostegid marine turtles. The Saxonian Cretaceous Basin formed a continuous epeiric seaway with the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin during late Cenomanian – Turonian time. A western connection to the North Sea Basin also existed via the North German and Münsterland Cretaceous basins. The Mesozoic marine amniote remains from these regions therefore record a coeval northern European fauna that was probably homogeneous across the northern peri-Tethyan margin during Late Cretaceous time.
Plesiosaurian fossils from Baltic glacial erratics: evidence of Early Jurassic marine amniotes from the southwestern margin of Fennoscandia
Sachs, S., Hornung, J. J. & Kear, B.P. (2016) Plesiosaurian fossils from Baltic glacial erratics: evidence of Early Jurassic marine amniotes from the southwestern margin of Fennoscandia. In: Kear, B.P., Lindgren, J., Hurum, J.H., Milán, J. & Vajda, V. (eds.) Mesozoic biotas of Scandinavia and its Arctic territories. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 434: 149-163. [Request a pdf]
Early Jurassic plesiosaurian fossils are rare in the Scandinavian region, with a few isolated bones and teeth known from Bornholm, and anecdotal finds from East Greenland. The only other identifiable specimens derive from Toarcian-aged (based on ammonites) erratics deposited during Late Pleistocene glacial advances near the town of Ahrensburg, NE of Hamburg in northern Germany. The geographical source of these transported clasts is debated, but reconstructed ice-flow directions and lithofacies comparisons implicate either the offshore Baltic Sea between the Island of Bornholm and Mecklenburg–Vorpommern (Germany) or, less probably, south of the Danish Archipelago (Mecklenburg Bay). These regions collectively bordered the Fennoscandian landmass and adjacent Ringkøbing-Fyn Island in the late Early Jurassic, and were dominated by near-shore marine deltaic to basinal settings. The Ahrensburg plesiosaurian remains include postcranial elements reminiscent of both the microcleidid Seeleyosaurus and the rhomaelosaurid Meyerasaurus. These occur alongside other classic ‘Germanic province’ marine amniotes, such as the teleosaurid crocodyliform Steneosaurus and ichthyosaurian Stenopterygius cf. quadriscissus: thus, advocating faunal continuity between Scandinavia and southern Germany during the Toarcian, and a less pronounced marine reptile faunal provinciality than previously assumed.
A partial plesiosaurian braincase from the Upper Cretaceous of Sweden
Sachs, S., Lindgren, J. & Siversson, M. (2016) A partial plesiosaurian braincase from the Upper Cretaceous of Sweden. In: Kear, B.P., Lindgren, J., Hurum, J.H., Milán, J. & Vajda, V. (eds.) Mesozoic biotas of Scandinavia and its Arctic territories. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 434: 293-301. [Request a pdf]
A partial exoccipital–opisthotic from the uppermost lower Campanian (Upper Cretaceous) of the Åsen locality, Kristianstad Basin, southernmost Sweden, is described and illustrated. The fossil represents the first braincase element of a plesiosaur found in Sweden. It includes the chamber for the ampulla and utriculus, openings for the caudal vertical and horizontal semicircular canals, and four foramina for cranial nerves. The incomplete braincase can be referred to an elasmosaurid plesiosaur, and closely resembles the exoccipital–opisthotic of Libonectes morgani and a referred specimen of Aristonectes parvidens. Although we discuss putative postcranial material of the elasmosaurid subfamily Aristonectinae in the uppermost lower Campanian of southernmost Sweden, the exoccipital–opisthotic from Åsen most likely belongs to a juvenile individual of a non-aristonectine elasmosaur.
Postcranium of the paradigm elasmosaurid plesiosaurian Libonectes morgani (Welles, 1949)
Sachs, S. & Kear, B.P. (2015) Postcranium of the paradigm elasmosaurid plesiosaurian Libonectes morgani (Welles, 1949). Geological Magazine 152(4): 694-710. [Request a pdf]
Elasmosauridae constitutes one of the most immediately recognizable plesiosaurian radiations. Their distinctive body plan represents the popular model for Plesiosauria, and is typified by an osteological morphology especially adapted for hyper-elongation of the neck. Nevertheless, many archetypal elasmosaurids are known only from incomplete and/or inadequately documented material, a problem that has contributed to their uncertain intra-clade relationships. A prime example of this is Libonectes morgani from the Upper Cretaceous of Texas, USA, which is frequently presented as an elasmosaurid structural proxy because of its three-dimensionally preserved holotype skull. Perplexingly though, both the taxonomic diagnosis and phylogenetic placement of L. morgani rely primarily upon the cervical vertebrae, together with the pectoral girdle and forelimb, yet most of these elements are now lost and figured only as line drawings. We therefore reviewed the remnant postcranial skeleton of L. morgani first-hand with the objective of clarifying its defining character states. Our observations showed that the existing diagnosis of L. morgani is indeed inadequate. Moreover, the only identifiable autapomorphies occurred within the axial skeleton. This concurred with an examination of character scores used in published plesiosaurian phylogenies, and highlights the persistent significance of postcranial elements for discriminating elasmosaurid taxa.